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Dr Rich Chanin DMD discusses galvanic currents and dental mercury amalgam, "silver" fillings

Science News

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A comparison of mental health of multiple sclerosis patients with silver mercury dental fillings and those with fillings removed In this study, people with amalgam suffered more symptoms such as depression, anger, hostility, psychotism, and were more obsessive-compulsive than the patients with such fillings removed. These data suggested that the poorer mental health status exhibited by multiple sclerosis subjects with dental amalgam fillings may be associated with mercury toxicity from the amalgam.
A compilation of scientific studies on the various ways mercury may influence or exacerbate diabetes Mercury can potentially effect a number of factors in relation to diabetes. Mercury has been shown to destroy beta cells and bring about insulin resistance. In addition, mercury is known to cause inflammation and oxidative stress, thereby influencing or exacerbating diabetes.
A compilation of studies linking mercury exposure to color vision loss Over the last several decades a wide variety of studies have linked mercury exposure to various visual impairments, most notably color vision loss. Unfortunately the majority of these studies have been done overseas and mercury toxicity is not tested for when being evaluated for color vision loss.
A comprehensive overview of the connection between dental mercury fillings and antibiotic resistances Installing dental amalgams into monkeys resulted in a sharp increase in the proportion of their GI tract (oral and fecal) bacteria able to produce volatile Hg(0).  >80% of these mercury transforming bacteria were also resistant to several antibiotics because selection for the mercury transformation genes results in co-selection for whatever antibiotic resistances happen to be on the same plasmid; they are genetically linked.
A significant relationship between mercury exposure from dental amalgams and urinary porphyrins Researchers Dr. Mark and David Geier show how the data from the "children's amalgam trial" studies, originally published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, and purported to prove the safety of mercury amalgam, actually show a dose-dependent toxicity in a key metabolic system.
A systematic review of mercury ototoxicity All the articles analyzed here showed that mercury  exposure is ototoxic, inducing peripheral and/or central hearing loss. It is a consensus in the literature that acute and long-term exposure produces irreversible damage to the central auditory system. Measuring mercury levels with biomarkers was unable to predict the relationship between the degree of mercury poisoning and the degree of damage to the auditory system.
A Systematic Review on Mercury Toxicity From Dental Amalgam Fillings And Its Management Strategies Mercury combines readily with other metals to form solid amalgams, which have been used continuously in dentistry for nearly 200 years to reconstruct decayed teeth. Use of Mercury in dentistry has generated certain  amount of controversy, since the middle of the 19th Century. This controversy has gained momentum over the last 25 years, since sensitive analytical chemical techniques showed continuous release of mercury from dental amalgams.
Amalgam removal and recovery from mercury toxicity presenting as chronic fatigue, memory loss and depression In a group of 465 patients diagnosed as having chronic mercury toxicity CMT, 32.3% had severe fatigue, 88.8% had memory loss, and 27.5% had depression. A significant correlation was found between CMT and the ApoE4. Removal of amalgam mercury fillings combined with appropriate treatment resulted in a significant symptom reduction to levels reported by healthy subjects.
Amalgam Risk Assessment finds 120 million Americans over daily safe dose of mercury from amalgam fillings. On December 14 and 15, 2010, the FDA convened a scientific panel to re-examine the issue of mercury exposure from amalgam dental fillings. Two private foundations, assisted by IAOMT, have commissioned G. Mark Richardson, PhD, of SNC Lavallin, Ottawa, Canada, formerly of Health Canada, to provide the scientific panel and FDA regulators with a formal risk assessment using the latest information from the scientific literature.
Amalgam Risk Assessment pt2 Excessive Concurrent Exposure to Pb, MeHg and Hg0 in US population. Mark Richardson, PhD, of SNC Lavallin, provided the scientific panel and FDA regulators with a formal risk assessment using the latest information from the scientific literature. Part 2 is titled CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT AND JOINT TOXICITY: MERCURY VAPOR, METHYL MERCURY AND LEAD.
Amalgams fillings release more mercury when exposed to peroxide bleaching agents Silver amalgam specimens treated with 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching agents produced a statistically significant increase in the quantity of Hg released after 15 days compared with the control group. Additional studies are needed to assess the impact of this increase. However, the authors recommend avoiding the indiscriminate exposure of silver amalgam restorations to carbamide peroxide bleaching agents.
An evaluation of dental amalgam and its ability to injure human health In the past 20 years I have concentrated my research on the effects of mercury toxicity on human health. Specifically, I have researched and evaluated the contributions of dental amalgam, biologics and vaccines on the human body burden of mercury and organic-mercury compounds and the potential effects of these compounds on specific enzymes and cells.
An overview of the many cardiotoxic effects of Mercury In 1974, the National Institute of Health, part of the US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, translated and published a 333 page account of research from the Soviet Union on the effects of chronic exposure to mercury and its compounds. They reported that mercury affected the function of the heart in a variety of ways, including the ability of heart muscle to contract, and its electrical conductivity and regulation of cardiac activity.
Apolipoprotein E genotyping as a potential biomarker for mercury neurotoxicity Apolipoprotein-E genotyping has been investigated as an indicator of susceptibility to heavy metal neurotoxicity. Moreover, apo-E4 is a major risk factor for neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). A theoretical biochemical basis for this risk factor is discussed.  Apo-E genotyping warrants investigation as a clinically useful biomarker for those at increased risk of neuropathology, including AD, when subjected to long-term mercury exposures.
Apolipoprotein E genotyping as a potential biomarker for mercury neurotoxicity The concept of accumulative micro-mercurial neurotoxicity with specific reference to dental amalgam, has been well documented and prolonged exposure to mercury has been associated with the unique lesions of the AD brain. Therefore, amalgam, as the largest source of mercury vapor in the general population, should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients being investigated for neuro-psychiatric problems and shortterm memory loss.
ATSDR - Toxicological Profile for Mercury - excerpts regarding health hazards from mercury fillings The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) toxicological profile succinctly characterizes the toxicologic and adverse health effects information for the hazardous substance described here. Each peer-reviewed profile identifies and reviews the key literature that describes a hazardous substance's toxicologic properties.
Background exposure to toxic metals in women adversely influences pregnancy during in vitro fertilization The aim of this study was to generate hypotheses concerning associations between background exposures and pregnancy. One µg/L increases in blood Hg are associated with decreases of 35% (P=0.03) and 33% (P=0.01) in clinical and biochemical pregnancies, respectively. These data suggest that low-level, background exposures to Hg and Cd may interfere with pregnancy following IVF.
Boyd Haley PhD explains the link between APOE-4 and Alzheimer's Disease Boyd Haley PhD explains why the apolipoprotein-4 (APOE-4) genotype represents a genetic susceptibility to mercury toxicity as a pathogenetic factor and a moderator of Alzheimer's Disease.
California EPA determines mercury safe level should be ten times lower than national EPA In 2008 California's Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment concluded a new risk assessment of mercury and adjusted its chronic mercury reference exposure levels down to 0.03 μg Hg/m3. This level is ten times lower than the outdated and flawed, 20 year old chronic mercury reference exposure levels of 0.3 μg Hg/m3 as set by the Environmental Protection Agency.
California EPA determines mercury safe level should be ten times lower than national EPA In 2008 California's Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment concluded a new risk assessment of mercury and adjusted its chronic mercury reference exposure levels down to 0.03 μg Hg/m3. This level is ten times lower than the outdated and flawed, 20 year old chronic mercury reference exposure levels of 0.3 μg Hg/m3 as set by the Environmental Protection Agency.
Can mercurys toxic effects exacerbate the medical condition classified as Alzheimers Disease ? Mercury (as Hg2+) exposure to neurons in culture has been shown to produce three of the widely accepted pathological diagnostic hallmarks of AD. These are elevated amyloid protein, hyper-phosphorylation of Tau, and formation of neurofibillary tangles. The hypothesis is that mercury and other blood-brain permeable toxicants that have enhanced specificity for thiol-sensitive enzymes are the etiological source of AD
Characterization of health complaints before and after removal of amalgam fillings - 3-year follow-up In a group of individuals with health complaints attributed to amalgam fillings the complaints were reduced after removal of the fillings. To which level the complaints were reduced varied for the different symptoms and the inter-ndividual variation of intensities of complaints was considerable. Several factors may be of importance for the observed reduction of complaint intensity.
Chris Shade P.h.D. of QuickSilver Scientific discusses synergistic toxicity Dr. Chris Shade Ph.D. of QuickSilver Scientific and Boyd Haley discuss hypersensitivity and aspects of synergistic toxicity.
Chronic inorganic mercury induced peripheral neuropathy A patient with inorganic mercury intoxication had developed a slowly progressive generalized paralysis of all limbs. Electrophysiologic studies revealed axonal polyneuropathy involving both motor and sensory fibers. Sural nerve biopsy demonstrated axonal degeneration with demyelination and a predominant loss of large myelinated fibers.
Chronic Mercury Poisoning: A Summary of the Science Chronic Mercury Poisoning A Brief Summary of the Science In summary, most chronic mercury poisoning must be assessed indirectly, based on symptoms and minor lab anomalies.  
Comprehensive overview of how mercury reproduces the major hallmarks of Alzheimer’s Disease Mercury has been linked to Alzheimer's disease by a number of different studies that have accumulated over the last two decades. Watch and listen to published scientists talk about how mercury can cause many of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. This article was taken from the IAOMT's Petition For Reconsideration, which prompted the FDA to re-evaluate their 2009 ruling that amalgam was safe for everyone.
CPOX4 modifies mercury neurotoxicity in children The present studies demonstrate significant adverse effects on neurobehavioral functions associated with chronic Hg exposure and the CPOX4 genetic variant among children, with effects manifested predominantly among boys. These findings are the first to describe a genetic polymorphism that modifies the effects of Hg exposure on neurobehavioral functions in children, and suggest directions for future research to define mechanisms underlying differential sensitivity to mercury between boys and girls.
David Kennedy DDS and Studies Linking Mercury to Infertility David Kennedy DDS discusses a study by professor Ingrid Gerhard, where she examined more than 1000 patients for mercury toxicity and fertility problems. The high-mercury group had more hormonal disturbances, immune disturbances, recurringfungal infections, hair loss and allergies. The doctors successfully treated fertility problems with amalgam removal. Professor Gerhard states," mercury exposure leads to hormone and immune disturbances that can reduce fertility".
Dental mercury amalgam fillings associated with a deterioration of high-frequency auditory acuity Mercury has been shown to affect the auditory system at a wide range of levels, from the cochlea to the cortex.  In this study, we compared the number and surface area of different types of dental fillings with auditory thresholds. Having more amalgam fillings was associated with a deterioration of high-frequency auditory acuity (8 kHz and above). These results suggest a detrimental, dose-dependent effect of amalgams on hearing. There is also a likely duration-dependent effect.
Detoxification and antioxidant effects of curcumin in rats experimentally exposed to mercury Curcumin treatment was found to have a protective effect on mercury-induced oxidative stress parameters, namely, lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities in the liver, kidney and brain. Curcumin treatment was also effective for reversing mercury-induced serum biochemical changes, which are the markers of liver and kidney injury.
Does Inorganic Mercury (as from dental amalgam) Play a Role in Alzheimer’s Disease? Recently published in the Journal for Alzheimer's Disease was a study that performed a meta-analysis of 106 case-control or comparative cohort studies to associate mercury as a causative factor in Alzheimer's disease. Noting that the main source of mercury in the human body is dental amalgam (1 - 27 ug a day)
Dose and Hg species determine the T-helper cell activation in murine autoimmunity Inorganic mercury (mercuric chloride—HgCl2) induces in mice an autoimmune syndrome (HgIA). Hg may interact directly with fibrillarin/fibrillarin peptides causing a physically altered molecule which is immunogenic. Additionally, Hg-induced cell death (necrosis) might modify the cleavage pattern for fibrillarin, resulting in neo-peptides of fibrillarin which expose immunogenic epitopes to T cells.
Dr Rich Chanin DMD discusses galvanic currents and dental mercury amalgam, "silver" fillings Dr. Rich Chanin DMD, of the International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology discusses galvanic currents and dental mercury amalgam, "silver" fillings. Accompanying article, “Dying for a Beautiful Smile”  on galvanic currents, by Kimberly Hall.
Dr. James Rota discusses the occurance of galvanic reactions generated by dental mercury amalgam fillings Dr. James Rota discusses the occurance of galvanic reactions (electrical current) generated by the combination of silver fillings / crowns, gold fillings / crowns with the mouth's saliva
Dr. Mark Hyman on the importance of Glutathione What's the most important molecule you've never heard of? In this week's UltraWellness blog, Dr. Mark Hyman gives you the lowdown on the "mother of all antioxidants" and tells you how you can boost it in your body -- naturally. To find out more, watch this video from Dr. Mark Hyman.
Effect of amalgam fillings on mercury levels in the colostrum of human milk Published in Environmental Monitoring and Assessment: The result of this study also showed a positive correlation of mercury milk levels with the number of amalgam teeth fillings of the mother. Estimated weekly intake of mercury of a breastfed infant was, in some cases, higher than provisional tolerance weekly intake recommended by FAO / WHO, which pose a threat to their health.
Effect of amalgam fillings on the mercury concentration in human amniotic fluid There is little information about Hg concentration in human amniotic fluid (AF) of pregnant women and its potential toxic effect on the fetuses. This study assessed the relationship between the presence of detectable mercury (Hg) concentration in human AF, number and surface areas of amalgam fillings of pregnant women; secondary to analyse their obstetric history and perinatal complications. The number and surface areas of amalgam fillings influenced positively Hg concentration in amniotic fluid.
Effect of mercury dental amalgam fillings on renal and oxidative stress biomarkers in children We examined the effect of mercury (Hg) associated with dental amalgam fillings on biomarkers of renal and oxidative stress in children between the ages of 5–15.5 years. Our data provide evidence that low exposure to Hg from dental amalgam fillings exerts an effect on kidney tubular functions in children. Oxidative stress may have played a role in this mechanism. The results of this study would also suggest that urinary NAG is the most sensitive of all the investigated renal biomarkers.
Effect of selenium on mercury vapour released from dental amalgams an in vitro study When the amalgam surfaces were brushed with the conventional toothpaste, an increase of the released vapour was noted. The use of the selenium containing toothpaste resulted in all cases, in significantly lower amounts of mercury vapour.
Endocrine disruptor & nutritional effects of heavy metals in ovarian hyperstimulation There is increasing concern that environmental chemicals have a direct effect on fertility. Heavy metals such as mercury have been shown to affect various organ systems in humans including nervous system and skin, however they could also act as endocrine disrupting chemicals adversely affecting fertility. Our results suggest that mercury may act as an endocrine disruptor with a deleterious effect on the ovarian response to gonadotrophin therapy
Endothelium Dysfunction and Toxic Heavy Metals The Endothelium is a single cell layer thick membrane that covers the entire circulatory and lymphatic systems in your body. Endothelial dysfunction is a hallmark for vascular diseases and a wide range circulatory ailments. One of the main causes of endothelial dysfunction is the presence and build up of toxic heavy metals including Mercury, Lead, Aluminum, Arsenic and Cadmium.
EPA: Mercury Study Report to Congress Outlines Health Effects of Mercury In 1997 The Environmental Protection Agency compiled the Mercury Study Report to Congress. This document covers the human health effects of mercury and mercury compounds. Upon reading the symptoms of mercury vapor-induced neurotoxicity and the toxicokinetics, it is apparent that mercury has great potential to mimmic symptoms of dementia and Alzheimer's disease.
Evaluation of comparative effect of pre- and posttreatment of selenium on mercury-induced oxidative stress This study evaluated the effect of pre- or posttreatment of selenium in mercury intoxication. Exposure to mercury resulted in induced oxidative stress in liver, kidney, and brain tissues of rats.  Results indicate that pretreatment with selenium is beneficial in comparison to posttreatment in mercury intoxication. 
Evaluation of oral tissue response and blood levels of mercury released from dental amalgam in rats This study reveals that there is a positive correlation between blood mercury levels and oral tissue response in mother rats, however, the negative impact of mercury on oral tissues of offspring rats was due to high mercury levels in their mothers' blood during pregnancy. Further clinical studies are recommended to test our findings in man.  
Evidence that Mercury from Dental Amalgam May Cause Hearing Loss in Multiple Sclerosis Patients This study was undertaken to determine hearing sensitivity changes of MS subjects after the removal of silver dental fillings. Because of mercury’s known ability to damage hearing, before and after hearing tests were performed on the subjects. Because all frequencies showed an improvement after amalgam removal, it was concluded that (mercury induced) nerve damage was causing the hearing loss. 
Evidence that mercury from silver dental fillings may be an etiological factor in multiple sclerosis This paper investigates the hypothesis that mercury from silver dental fillings (amalgam) may be related to multiple sclerosis (MS). It compares blood findings between MS subjects who had their amalgams removed to MS subjects with amalgams. A health questionnaire found that MS subjects with amalgams had significantly more (33.7%) exacerbations during the past 12 months compared to the MS volunteers with amalgam removal.
Exposure of Dental Workers to Mercury Dentists and their assistants were surveyed for potential health hazards associated with mercury amalgam fillings. Data collected during this study demonstrated the almost complete unawareness of most dental assistants and of many dentists that mercury could be hazardous; consequently, precautionary measures were almost nonexistent.
Exposure to mercury among dental health workers in Turkey: Correlation with amalgam work and own fillings The purpose of this study is to investigate the current status of exposure to mercury (Hg) among dental health workers. The study used 115 people in 3 groups to compare the differences between dental health workers' mercury levels and non healthcare staffs' mercury levels to determine the influence of amalgam fillings on the overall body burden of mercury.
Findings of HHS Funded Report Preventing Alzheimer’s Disease and Cognitive Decline The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality under The Department of Health and Human Services used our tax dollars to have the Duke University, Evidence-based Practice Center (EPC) conduct research for a report "Preventing Alzheimer's Disease and Cognitive Decline". The group found only one study fitting their criteria linking mercury to Alzheimer's disease, although there is over 20 years worth of publish studies showing a relationship between mercury and Alzheimer's disease.
From the Inside: The FDA's stance on Mercury Allergy from Dental Amalgams Mike Fleming DDS, served on the FDA dental products panel in 2006 and 2010. In this video he comments on various aspects of the FDA's stance on dental mercury amalgam allergy, including the ADA's statment at the 2006 hearing that 6% of the population (over 7 million people) are allergic to mercury.
Gender differences for associations between circulating levels of metals and coronary risk in the elderly We investigated whether circulating levels of metals related differently to coronary risk in men and women. Hg, Pb and Zn levels were significantly higher in men. The most striking finding is that Hg levels were positively related to LDL and inversely to HDL, suggesting an important role of Hg in determining an atherogenic lipid profile.
Gender Differences in the Uptake of Inorganic Mercury by Motor Neurons Gender differences have been noted in the tissue distribution of mercury. We sought to determine if the uptake of low-dose inorganic mercury into motor neurons dilifers between male and female mice. In conclusion, female mice take up more inorganic mercury into their motor neurons than do male mice. This may be related to a smaller deposition of mercury in the female kidney. leaving more circulating mercury available to be taken up by motor axons.
Glutathione as an antioxidant in inorganic mercury induced nephrotoxicity This review describes the current understanding and the mechanisms involved by different forms of mercury in eliciting their toxicity in kidney along with the knowledge of major intracellular reductant that plays important role in the mitigation of mercury toxicity for the maintenance of homeostasis within the body of living organisms. Mercury toxicity has the ability to produce a variety of deleterious health effects, ranging from single to multiple target effects inside the body of living organisms.
Impact of occupational exposure to elemental mercury on some antioxidative enzymes among dental staff This study investigated the effect of elemental mercury exposure on renal function and antioxidative enzymes activity as a possible mechanism of renal affection among dental staff. Compared to the control group, urinary and blood mercury were significantly higher in the exposed group. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in blood were significantly decreased and were negatively correlated with duration of work.
Inhalation of Mercury-Contaminated Particulate Matter by Dentists: An Overlooked Occupational Risk The vast amount of mercury contaminated particulate matter dentists are exposed to comes from the removal of amalgam fillings. Absorption from the lung occurs but that fecal excretion may predominate. As a result, urine analysis for Hg may be ineffective as a means of occupational monitoring.
Inorganic mercury causes pancreatic beta-cell death via the oxidative stress-induced apoptotic and necrotic pathways Mercury is a well-known highly toxic metal. In this study, we characterize and investigate the cytotoxicity and its possible mechanisms of inorganic mercury in pancreatic beta-cells. Our results suggest that HgCl2-induced oxidative stress causes pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction and cytotoxicity involved the co-existence of apoptotic and necrotic cell death.
Inorganic mercury levels in Americans rose from 2% to 30% over 6 years (a 900% increase) Dan Laks analyzed data from the CDC's National Health Nutrition Examination Survey(NHANES) and found that in the 1999-2000 NHANES survey, mercury was detected in the blood of 2 percent of women aged 18 to 49, that level rose to 30 percent of women by 2005-2006 (a 900% increase) and it was associated with a rise in liver, immune and pituitary dysfunction.
Involvement of environmental mercury and lead in the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases This experimental neurotoxicology study indicates a potential pathogenic role of lead and mercury in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Mercury has been shown to interfere with a multitude of intracellular targets, thereby contributing to several pathogenic processes typical of neurodegenerative disorders, including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, deregulation of protein turnover, and brain inflammation.
Long term Use of Nicotine Chewing Gum and Mercury Exposure from Dental Amalgam Fillings This article explorers the statistics concerning long term nicotine gum chewing and determines if chewing nicotine gum can elevate the levels of mercury released into the body from amalgam fillings.
Low Dose Inorganic Mercury Increases Severity and Frequency of Chronic Coxsackievirus-induced Autoimmune Myocarditis in Mice There is evidence that inorganic mercury (iHg) and organic mercury have a range of immunotoxic effects, including immune suppression and induction of autoimmunity. In this study, we investigated the effect of iHg on a model of autoimmune heart disease in mice induced by infection with coxsackievirus B3. We show for the first time that low-dose Hg exposure increases chronic myocarditis and DCM in a murine model.
Low mercury concentrations cause oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in arteries The functional integrity of endothelium is crucial for the maintenance of blood flow and antithrombotic capacity. Vascular endothelium is highly sensitive to oxidative stress, and this stress is the main cause of the endothelial dysfunction observed in cardiovascular diseases. Chronic exposure to low concentrations of mercury promotes endothelial dysfunction. These findings offer further evidence that mercury, even at low concentrations, is an environmental risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
Low-dose exposure to inorganic mercury accelerates disease and mortality in acquired murine lupus Our results support the hypothesis that low-level environmental exposure to Hg is one potential factor in the development of autoimmune disease and may lower the threshold for disease development in susceptible individuals who later encounter the appropriate infectious or toxic triggers of disease.
Lupus-like oral mucosal lesions in mercury-induced autoimmune response in Brown Norway rats Administration of mercury at nontoxic doses induces systemic autoimmune disease in Brown Norway (BN) rats. The pathogenesis of lupus-like oral mucosal lesion by mercury-induced autoimmunity is still unclear, even though the oral mucosa is observed to be commonly affected in mercury-treated BN rats. In this study, we investigated the immunopathology of lupus-like oral mucosal lesions in a model of mercury-induced systemic autoimmunity.
Luteinizing hormone provides a causal mechanism for mercury associated disease The pituitary is a main target for inorganic mercury (I-Hg) deposition and accumulation within the brain. There is a significant, inverse relationship between chronic mercury exposure and levels of luteinizing hormone (LH). LH is the only hormone with a rare and well characterized, high affinity binding site for mercury. It is likely that LH is an early and significant target of chronic mercury exposure and a causal mechanism for chronic mercury exposure and associated disease.
Maternal amalgam dental fillings as the source of mercury exposure in developing fetus and newborn The human placenta does not represent a real barrier to the transport of Hg0; hence, fetal exposure occurs as a result of maternal exposure to Hg, with possible subsequent neurodevelopmental disabilities in infants. A strong positive correlation between maternal and cord blood Hg levels was found. Levels of Hg in the cord blood were significantly associated with the number of maternal amalgam fillings
Maternal transfer of mercury to the developing embryo and fetus: is there a safe level? This study examines Hg exposure in the context of primary exposure to pregnant women and secondary exposure experienced by their unborn babies. Babies in utero are particularly at risk of higher Hg exposure than adults and are more susceptible to adverse effects from mercury and its biologically active compounds.
Maternal-fetal distribution of mercury (203Hg) released from dental amalgam fillings In humans, the continuous release of Hg vapor from dental amalgam tooth restorations is increased for prolonged periods after chewing. All fetal tissues examined displayed Hg accumulation. Highest concentrations of Hg from amalgam in the adult occurred in kidney and liver, whereas in the fetus the highest amalgam Hg concentrations appeared in liver and pituitary gland. The placenta progressively concentrated Hg as gestation advanced to term.
Mercury and nickel allergy: risk factors in fatigue and autoimmunity This study examined the presence of hypersensitivity to dental and environmental metals in patients with clinical disorders complicated with chronic fatigue syndrome. We have found that fatigue, regardless of the underlying disease, is primarily associated with hypersensitivity to inorganic mercury and nickel. Patients reported alleviated fatigue and disappearance of many symptoms after replacement of amalgam fillings.
Mercury and other environmental chemicals are associated with liver disease Biomonitoring studies show that humans carry a body burden of multiple classes of contaminants which are not often studied together. Many of these chemicals may be hepatotoxic. We used the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to evaluate the relationship between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) a sensitive indicator of liver cell injury, and 37 environmental contaminants, comprising heavy metals, non dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dioxin-like compounds.
Mercury and thyroid autoantibodies in U.S. women CDC NHANES 2007–2008 Associations between positive thyroid autoantibodies and total blood mercury in women were evaluated. Women are at increased risk for autoimmune disorders, mercury exposure has been associated with cellular autoimmunity and mercury accumulates in the thyroid gland. Removal of inorganic mercury-containing dental amalgams resulted in significantly decreased levels of the thyroid autoantibodies thyroglobulin antibody and thyroid peroxidase antibody.
Mercury Associated Nephrotic Syndrome A Case Report and Systematic Review of the Literature Kidney injury from mercury is known to cause dose-related tubular dysfunction and idiosyncratic nephrotic syndrome according to various case reports. Motivated by a patient with subacute-onset nephrotic syndrome, histologic features of secondary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and concurrent mercury toxicity, we conducted a systematic review to explore renal histologic changes in patients with toxic mercury exposures and nephrotic syndrome.
Mercury burden in children - The impact of dental amalgam This study estimated Hg body burden from dental amalgam fillings in 182 children. The detrimental neurobehavioral and/or nephrotoxic effects of such an increased Hg on children should be a cause of concern, and further investigation is warranted. Our results are alarming and indicate an urgent need for biomonitoring and assessment of exposure. Changes in dental practices involving amalgam, especially for children, are highly recommended in order to avoid unnecessary exposure to Hg. 
Mercury burden of human fetal and infant tissues From our results it can be concluded that infants can accumulate mercury, derived from maternal amalgam fillings, in their kidneys. Therefore the unrestricted application of amalgam for dental restorations in women before and during the child-bearing age should be reconsidered in analogy to the recommendation of the German Health Authorities, which argued that because of a higher vulnerability of infants to mercury, amalgam cannot be further recommended for dental restorations for children.
Mercury dental fillings in 1st trimester linked to cleft palate: odds up fourfold in the first 2 months, 17-fold with multiple fillings Women's odds of giving birth to an infant with isolated cleft palate were increased about fourfold if they had mercury fillings placed in the first or second month of pregnancy and 17-fold if they had mercury fillings placed in multiple months during the first trimester. A cleft palate is a birth defect that has a slit in the roof of the mouth because it failed to close during the 1st trimester. 
Mercury exposure and periodontitis among a Korean population This study examined whether mercury exposure is associated with periodontitis. The results suggest that mercury exposure had an independent association with periodontitis. Males with high mercury levels had a 50.0% higher probability of having periodontitis than females with normal mercury levels. High body-burden mercury in males might be a contributory factor linked with periodontitis.
Mercury exposure in children Exposure to toxic mercury (Hg) is a growing health hazard throughout the world today. Recent studies show that mercury exposure may occur in the environment, and increasingly in occupational and domestic settings. Children are particularly vulnerable to Hg intoxication, which may lead to impairment of the developing central nervous system, as well as pulmonary and nephrotic damage. Several sources of toxic Hg exposure in children have been reported in biomedical literature such as that from dental mercury amalgam fillings.
Mercury from Dental Amalgam: Exposure and Risk Assessment Stephen M. Koral, DMD, FIAOMT writes an un-biased article that looks into commonly accepted variables concerning exposure, toxicology and risk assessment in the use of amalgam fillings in dentistry and the effect it will have on the use of amalgam in the future.
Mercury from silver dental fillings may be an etiological factor in depression, excessive anger, and anxiety. Women with "siver" amalgam mercury fillings had a higher incidence of depression, excessive anger, and anxiety. This study suggests that amalgam mercury fillings may be an etiological factor in depression, excessive anger, and anxiety because mercury can produce such symptoms perhaps by affecting the neurotransmitters in the brain.
Mercury in the Spinal Cord After Inhalation of Mercury Inhalation experiments in rats and primates show deposition of Hg in spinal cord following single high-dose short-time exposure. Mercury accumulation in anterior horn cells is followed by axonal atrophy and distal weakness similar to the clinical picture in human ALS. Respiratory Hg exposure could contribute to elevated concentrations of Hg found in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with ALS.
Mercury induced idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy A number of studies clearly establish that the largest source of nonoccupational Hg exposure for the general population is their dental amalgam fillings. Inordinately high levels of Hg (22,000 times greater than that in control subjects) have been found in the heart tissue of patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.
Mercury levels in plasma and urine after removal of all amalgam restorations: the effect of using rubber dams This study showed that dental amalgam had a statistically significant impact on the mercury levels found in plasma and urine in the patients tested, and that the use of a rubber dam during removal of all amalgam restorations significantly reduced the peak of mercury in plasma following removal.
Mercury released from silver dental fillings provokes an increase in mercury and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in oral and intestinal floras of primates Hg is released from amalgams in amounts sufficient to select for Hg resistant bacteria in the commensal microbiota and that the Hg resistance would be linked to antibiotic resistance genes. After amalgam placement, the primates showed a 10,000-fold rise in the Hg content of their feces. They also had a dramatic rise in Hg resistant bacteria in the oral and fecal bacteria.
Mercury toxicokinetics--dependency on strain and gender Adverse health effects from exposure to mercury (Hg) exposure from dental amalgam fillings cannot be ruled out in a small and more susceptible part of the exposed population. Individual differences in toxicokinetics may explain susceptibility to mercury. F2 mice showed a large inter-individual variation in Hg accumulation, showing that multiple genetic factors influence the Hg toxicokinetics in the mouse.
Mercury, APOE, and children’s neurodevelopment The benefit of the nutritious elements in fish is insufficient for explaining the controversial finding regarding prenatal mercury (Hg) exposure and neurodevelopment; the varying frequency of susceptible genes among these populations may shed light on these observations. However, limited studies have been reported on the association between genetic susceptibility, of prenatal Hg exposure and child development...
Mercurys role in the initiation or exacerbation of autoimmune diseases Scientific evidence suggests that exposure to mercury and other heavy metals may play a role in the initiation or exacerbation of autoimmune diseases. Mercury is known to adversely affect the immune system of animals. The extent of the effects of mercury may depend on genetic background, duration of exposure, and current or past infections.
Metal-specific lymphocyte reactivity is down-regulated after dental amalgam replacement In this study we performed the MELISA® test on patients with health problems suspected to be related to amalgam. Lymphocyte reactivity was studied prior to and after the replacement of biological incompatible dental restorations. It was found that replacement of incompatible dental materials down-regulated metalspecific responses in sensitized individuals.  
Migration of mercury from dental amalgam through human teeth Exposure to mercury from dental amalgams has generally been considered to occur via either erosion or evaporation directly from the surface of fillings, followed by ingestion. This study determined the relative importance of the direct migration of mercury through the tooth as an alternative exposure pathway. Most importantly the detection of Hg in areas of the tooth that once contained an active bloodstream and in calculus indicates that both exposure pathways should be considered as significant.
More than 26 million Americans have chronic kidney disease and most don’t know it. From The National Kidney Foundation: according to investigators at Johns Hopkins and Tufts-New England Medical Center, a study based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey estimated that there are 26,000,000 adults with evidence of kidney disease in the USA alone and most are completely unaware of their condition. This number increases  the rate of chronic kidney disease by 30%. From 10% of the U.S. population (1988-1994) to 13.1% (1999-2004).”
NIH stops funding researcher after showing mercury can cause biochemical hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease Boyd Haley P.h.D. discusses the findings of his published studies (and others), which showed that mercury and only mercury can cause the major biochemical hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease and how the NIH stopped his funding after he published those findings.
Occupational risk factors for the development of systemic lupus erythematosus This study reveals the potential contribution of occupational exposures to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and highlights some exposures and experiences that should be examined in other studies using more extensive exposure assessment techniques and in experimental studies of autoimmunity. Although these associations were fairly strong and statistically significant, these estimates are based on a small number of exposed cases and controls.
Organic & inorganic mercury in neonatal rat brain after prenatal exposure to methylmercury & mercury vapor In this study we investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to MeHg and Hg vapor on Hg concentrations in the brain of neonatal rats. Among animals not exposed to MeHg, animals exposed to Hg vapor had significantly greater organic and inorganic brain Hg levels than did unexposed animals. This interaction, heretofore not reported, suggests that coexposure to MeHg and Hg vapor at levels relevant to human exposure might elevate neurotoxic risks.
Overview of Autoimmune Disorders Our immune system is a complex network of special cells and organs that defends the body from germs and other foreign invaders. At the core of the immune system is the ability to tell the difference between self and nonself: A flaw can make the body unable to tell the difference between self and nonself. When this happens, the body makes autoantibodies that attack normal cells by mistake. At the same time special cells called regulatory T cells fail to do their job of keeping the immune system in line. The result is a misguided attack on your own body. 
Overview of mercury as a potential causal factor of Multiple Sclerosis Multiple Sclerosis (“MS”) was first commonly identified in the 19th century during the time in which mercury/silver fillings came into common use. There is toxicological evidence that mercury poisoning victims and multiple sclerosis victims share similar symptoms. While genetic variability and individual ability to excrete mercury probably plays a role, the causation of MS is probably multi-factorial. Very serious consideration should be given to mercury possibly playing a role in the etiology of MS. 
Overview of mercury toxicity from medical books and published studies Stevenson Munro went looking for the answers to his deteriorating health and found the culprit was right under his nose. Stevenson forwarded this powerpoint to M.E. last year and we found it to be an amazing overview of mercury toxicity from medical books and published studies. Anyone who reads it will appreciate the depth of research he has conducted. People should not be surprised to learn that the medical books prognosis of mercury toxicity mirror many of the symptoms those with amalgam fillings claim to have.
Oxford Journal of Occupational Medicine "Mercury and the Kidney" A study published in the Journal of Occupational Medicine  in 2010 revealed that The kidney retains more mercury than any other organ in the body and Estimation of urinary mercury concentration is of limited value in the diagnosis of mercurialism, as high excretion rates may be seen without clinical disorder, or mercurialism may be present when urinary excretion is low.
Placental transfer of mercury in pregnant rats which received dental amalgam restorations Mercury vapor released from one, two and four amalgam restorations in pregnant rats and mercury concentrations in maternal and fetal organs were studied. A highly significant correlation was also found between the number of amalgam fillings and their surface areas. Mercury concentrations in major maternal organs with one, two and four amalgam fillings tended to increase with the increasing amalgam surface areas.
Predictors of treatment outcomes after removal of amalgam fillings The data from this study revealed that amalgam sensitive individuals are quite heterogeneous with respect to treatment effects and that there may be a true association between symptoms and mercury levels in subgroups. Therefore, the question of 'amalgam sensitivity' should concentrate more on individual vulnerability, either in the form of biological (e.g. genetic) or psychosocial (e.g. personality, experiences, health beliefs and concerns) predispositions.
Prenatal Methylmercury Exposure and Genetic Predisposition to Cognitive Deficit at Age 8 Years In this study, done in Bristol, UK, 1135 children were studied to determine the cognitive consequences at school age associated with prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure. The conclusion indicates that science may need to take into account nutritional and sociodemographic cofactors as well as relevant genetic polymorphisms when evaluating the health risk to a population.
Protective behavior of tamoxifen against Hg2+-induced toxicity on kidney mitochondria in vitro and in vivo experiments Heavy metals are known to induce functional alterations in kidney mitochondria, this damage plays a central role in the mercury-induced acute renal failure. In fact, mercury causes rapid and dramatic changes in the membrane's ionic permeability in such a way that a supra load of mitochondrial Ca(2+) occurs. As a consequence, the phenomenon of permeability transition takes place.
Protective effect of lycopene against mercury-induced cytotoxicity in albino mice: pathological evaluation. We evaluated the protective role of lycopene on cytotoxicity induced by mercury in albino mice. In vivo results showed that the lycopene supplementation decreases cytotoxicity induced by mercury and its protective role is dose-dependent.

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Saturday, 16 April 2011 14:26

Dr Rich Chanin DMD discusses galvanic currents and dental mercury amalgam, "silver" fillings


Kimberly D. Hall
“Dying for a Beautiful Smile”

Dr. Randolph Myerson defined a galvanic reaction as being an electrical current resulting from the presence of two incompatible metals in the mouth. The dentist is one of many experts answering inquiries from concerned individuals. Myerson included this information in his response to a 49 year-old patient wondering whether the sweet taste in their silver amalgam-filled tooth was indicative of a galvanic reaction. According to the expert, a defective margin is also a possible cause for the odd sensory occurrence.

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Dr Rich Chanin DMD, of the IAOMT, discusses galvanic currents and dental mercury amalgam, "silver" fillings

Regardless, galvanic reactions are a great cause for concern. More people are discovering the dangers of silver fillings they may have had since childhood as they contain 50% mercury mixed with various amounts of copper, tin, zinc and silver. Due to many dentists still being uninformed of how dangerous these amalgams are, seeking answers on the Internet has become a viable alternative to asking them. Health forums such as http://www.dentalfearcentral.org provide access to the information sought. Again, a suffering dental patient asks forum members if a galvanic reaction could be responsible for their post-amalgam replacement pain.

One forum member responds by sharing a method they use to test for galvanism. To do so, it is suggested to slide an extremely thin, small plastic piece (Mylar film) between the two teeth believed to be experiencing the reaction. The pain should be alleviated if galvanism is its cause. In the event the space between the two suspect teeth is too tight, a toothpick may be used as an aid to place the Mylar film there. Another option is to use a small piece of Glide dental tape to interfere with the contact of the metals. Rinsing the mouth with baking soda had also been recommended to alleviate the pain.

Mind you, diagnosing the problem is only half of the battle. A safe but permanent solution is required. The sooner these toxic amalgams are removed, the better. Toxins increase in the body dramatically as time goes on. Serious permanent damage could result improper removal, yet keeping the mercury-filled amalgams is as unhealthy as or worse than that. Some startling information involving that this was found at http://www.flcv.com/galv.html by Bernie Windham. A plethora of well-documented scientific findings from accurate resources adds great credibility to Windham’s assertions. The article details how the electrical impulses of a galvanic reaction literally short-circuit the brain, bringing validity to the fact the electric current produced by dissimilar amalgam metals is at least 100,000 times stronger than that used by the brain to send thoughts. This was explained in the book “Beating Alzheimer’s” by Tom Warren.

Windham elaborates on this point a great deal, noting mercury’s highly volatile and toxic nature makes it incompatible with both gold and stainless steel. Levels of mercury released into tissue and as vapor increase dramatically due to the electrical currents. A daily dose of 30 micrograms is commonly released into a person with metal amalgams. Gum tissue absorbs even more than that amount at 200 ppm. Mucous membranes are shockingly conducive as well, serving as a cathode to the amalgams’ anodes. Oral surgery patients possessing half a dozen or more metal amalgams had mercury levels twenty-fold of those in the control group. Their root tips were also found to contain an astonishing 41 ppm.

Unfortunately, mercury is not the only dangerous element involved. Metal amalgams release tin, silver, and copper as well. These too, have a terrible impact on the body. For instance, compounds made by organic tin in the body actually are more harmful than inorganic mercury ones. Amalgams made with zinc produce much stronger electric currents than the other metals.

All have a devastating effect on the human body, causing systemic defects. Mercury in particular spreads most rapidly into vital organs and tissues. Headaches (especially migraines), dizziness, and nausea are only a few symptoms galvanism may spawn. Galvanic reactions are measurable by micro amps. A single filling could create an electric current as intense as 5 micro- amps! Considering the human Central Nervous System (CNS) utilizes the merely one-thousandth of that nano- amp, it comes as no surprise that amalgam-toxic individuals suffer from leukoplakia, oral lichen planus, and serious allergic reactions to dental restorations along with the previously mentioned ailments.

The majority of cases have potential differences upwards of 50 mV, which may be anywhere from – 417 mV to + 150 mV. Pathologically speaking, negative potentials are suspected to be the most destructive. Metal crowns and bridges contribute to galvanism as well, with 154 mV coursing from them, while brace brackets release 71 mV. Electrons are forced into the oral cavity by negatively charged amalgams and crowns. Greater loss of methyl mercury occurs due to the high electrolyte quality of saliva.

In addition to the prior described illnesses, autoimmune diseases such as MS and epilepsy tend to exist in patients with negative potential fillings. Windham explains that the Huggins Protocol stresses how imperative removing negative current amalgams is. IAOMT is a highly recommended resource for more information on mercury amalgam removal, along with DAMS. The article notes that gold must not be allowed in the mouth and the mandatory minimum period is 6 months.

Exposure to EMFs (electromagnetic fields) only adds to the mix. Patients who spend a considerable amount of time near microwaves or MRI machines had significantly raised levels of mercury input and output. Salivary mercury showed an increase of 31 percent post-MRI in those with metal amalgams. Circadian Rhythms are disrupted by EMFs altering calcium efflux and homeostasis, in turn lowering melatonin. Sleep-wake cycles rely on this essential brain chemical not only for restoration of human cells, but for protection against damaging carcinogenic free radicals. Chronic illnesses as well as neurologically degenerative afflictions (Alzheimer’s, ALS, and Parkinson’s disease) often develop due to the imbalance.

Mercury tattoos are described as locations in the gums where root caps from root-canals have seeped into tissue. It is absolutely terrifying that a tooth topped with a gold cap produces some of the strongest electrical currents, revealing to German oral surgeons its levels to measure as much as 5,000 ppm when the jawbones under large fillings or gold crowns were studied. 1 ppm is the action level for fish or food by the FDA. Warnings are issued once levels reach half of the action level amount. 0.3 ppm is the EPA standard health criterion level.

Gingivitis, lesions, oral pain or burning, metallic taste, chronic inflammatory response, trigeminal neuralgia, allergies, and autoimmune troubles all may occur in the mouth alone from mercury. Oral Cancer could result from galvanism as well. Copper is equally as threatening, emitting an amount of mercury fifty-fold when present in high concentrations. Gamma-2 amalgams contain a great deal of copper, and actually release more vapor than traditional silver amalgams. Non-gamma-2 fillings are designed to be sturdier and less likely to develop fractions at the margins in comparison to their conventional silver amalgams. The latter were found to be unstable during brushing, polishing, and chewing. Just everyday normal wear causes droplets of mercury to develop on their surfaces.

These levels of mercury are transferred to the blood, brain, lungs, kidneys, liver, and the CNS. In combination with the disastrous neurological and immunity issues, a full assault against the endocrine system occurs. Silver amalgams’ effects have been documented by the government and are the number-one source of mercury exposure. As alarming as it may sound, bacteria naturally residing in the human intestines and mouth readily transforms the solid toxic metal into its deadliest form – gas.

Despite composite fillings replacing silver amalgams in recent years, a 2009 study uncovered a rising trend in the amount of inorganic mercury lying in people today. That particular study used information from the CDC (Center for Disease Control) and NHANES (Prevention’s National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). In 1999 through 2000, only 2 percent of females between the ages of 18 and 49 had mercury detected by NHANES in blood samples. By 2005 and 2006, that figure increased by 30 percent! Every state in the U.S. participated in the survey, which also involved hair analysis. An average of 22 percent of the entire population examined had toxic mercury levels present. Citizens living in Florida and New York possessed the most toxic levels, reaching upwards of 30 percent. Members of the Baby Boomer generation in particular should be concerned. Could Alzheimer’s be avoided through use of the Huggins amalgam removal protocol? Perhaps only time will tell.


Myerson, Randolph. “Sweet Tooth”. (2006)

http://en.allexperts.com/q/Dentistry-966/sweet-tooth.htm Viewed: 4/10/2011

http://www.dentalfearcentral.org Viewed: 4/9/2011

Warren, Tom. “Beating Alzheimer’s” (1991). Book. Avery Publishing Group, Inc. Garden City Park, New York. (You can purchase this at Amazon.com for as low as $0.01 like I previously have done.)

Windham, Bernie. “Oral Galvanism.” (1/2000) Article. http://www.flcv.com/galv.html Viewed : 4/9/2011

Kimberly Hall

Artist - comicbook art, portraits,fashion designing
Writer-health topics, comicbook scripts, novels, children's books, songs, poetry
Loves to dance as well as learn different languages.

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  • Comment Link Jason Monday, 04 November 2013 04:56 posted by Jason

    What is the best replacement for mercury fillings? I'm scared of plastic and now I hear that porcelain has aluminum? I still have about 8 or 9 of them. Thanks sooo much.

  • Comment Link dan.rotman Tuesday, 05 March 2013 14:08 posted by dan.rotman

    Is there a galvanic reaction not just between two diferent exposed metals in the mouth but also metals (say a mix/composite of gold and paladium (testedc as compatible with me), ENCLOSED in each crown.
    If not; is a leakage a realistic concern?
    Is having another two mostly gold crowns an issue?

  • Comment Link Dan Rotman Tuesday, 05 March 2013 13:59 posted by Dan Rotman

    Hello and thanks for taking my question.
    I'm considering having bridges made of 60% gold and 40% paladium.
    I was tested not to be allergic to both.
    I think I think I understand about galvanic reaction between two diferent metals coming in touch with saliva.
    What if those two metals are ENCLOSED in a crown? Is that a concern for galvanic reaction? I may test for a compatible porcelain (zirconia is not one)but it's also metal(s).
    In addition I also have two mostly gold crowns.

  • Comment Link Sandra Courtney Monday, 28 November 2011 09:24 posted by Sandra Courtney

    Thanks for your involvement in this issue Dr. Chanin. I had personal experience (burning mouth syndrome, CFS, multiple chemical and food allergies, PMS, depression, tachycardia, hypertension and other maladies too numerous to mention here). Had all of my fillings replaced with safe ones. It has taken me twenty years to overcome the assault, with the help of homeopathy. I had related the onset of a burning mouth to my dentist after having a cap and crown placed on a front tooth. He said that he knew some people were allergic to mercury, but that it was extremely rare. It took me 2-1/2 years, many doctors and persistence to find the cause. Fortunately, being a medical transcriptionist helped me along the way.

    Not to minimize the effect of mercury, since all routine "silver" amalgam fillings contains a combination of dissimilar metals, is this phenomenon not MORE of a concern for the general population than the mere mention of mercury?

    I once recommended to a co-worker who had constant sinusitis that she stop chewing gum and see if that helped. She had only two fillings, but these were enough to produce a galvanic reaction that traveled, of course, into her sinuses. She took my advice and one week later told me she felt WONDERFUL. She planned to have those two fillings replaced with safer ones. I lost contact with her over the past 10 years, but I was delighted that she had such a convincing result.

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